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Saturday, February 11, 2012

Basic Duckling Care - Raising Healthy Happy Ducks


Congratulations! So you have decided to raise some ducklings! If you have brooded chicks before, you will find that it's basically the same. In fact, my very first batch of chicks included two ducklings that we raised in the brooder box along with the chicks and all thrived and grew up to be happy and healthy. But in addition to the fact that ducklings grow much faster than chicks, there are also a few other differences between brooding ducklings and chicks.


~this chick is the same age as the ducklings, notice the size difference~

QUICK DUCKLING CHECKLIST

Here's what you will need to assemble before your ducklings arrive:

Brooder - either homemade or store bought (I've found a spare bathtub works best)
Heat Lamp with Two Red Bulbs or Brinsea Eco-Glow
Starter Feed (Non-Medicated chick starter is fine)
Brewer's Yeast
Raw Oats
Small Shallow Dishes or Ramekins for Feed and Water
Sugar
Chick-sized Grit (or provide clumps of grass/dirt)
Rubber Shelf Liner/Newspaper


BROODING AREA

Ducklings make a mess. They will play in their water and splash it all over the brooder. They take great delight in emptying their feeders all over the ground, although they don't scratch the feed out of dishes like chicks do.  But basically, if they can play in something, they will. I have found that brooding ducklings in a bathtub is the most practical and the easiest to keep clean.  If you don't have a spare bathtub, an empty horse trough or plastic storage tote also works, but ducklings grow fast so be prepared to provide them with larger accommodations in no time.  [Read HERE on how to make a storage tote brooder]


Ducklings can't fly so they won't get out of a bathtub, even once they grow larger, and a securely shut bathroom door will keep  them safe from curious kids, cats and dogs.  Since the floor of the tub will get very slippery when it gets wet, I put down a sheet of rubber shelf liner over a few layers of newspaper so the ducklings don't slip.  If ducklings are brooded on a slippery surface such as plastic, newspaper or cardboard, they can end up with Spraddle Leg. [Read more HERE on how to prevent and treat.]


The rubber mat makes a nice surface for them to grip for the first few days and with a few clumps of grass and dirt, they feel right at home.  You can also put a small stuffed animal, rice-filled eye pillow or other bean bag-type item. The ducklings seem to like to snuggle up with it.  You can also make herb-filled sachets for the ducklings to sleep on which impart nice health benefits to the growing ducklings. [Read HERE for the tutorial on making herbal sachets.]

Photo: I made these herbal sachets for our ducklings, but baby chicks will love AND benefit from them in the brooder as well. http://www.fresh-eggs-daily.com/2013/04/diy-brooder-box-herbal-sachets.html


After the first few days, you can add a layer of chopped straw or pine chips (never use cedar, they can be toxic and the oils can cause respiratory issues) on top of the shelf liner.  Don't ever use sand in your brooder. The ducklings will eat it and not only risk impacted crop but end up eating sand-covered poop at the same time, something you definitely don't want. If you use shavings, be sure they are larger 'chip-size' so the ducklings won't try to eat them or choke on them.

HEAT

A well-secured heat lamp will be necessary to keep the ducklings warm, no matter where you decide to raise them. A red light stresses ducklings less than a white light will. You ducklings should be brooded, staring at 90 degrees the first day, and then you can lower the temperature 7 degrees per week (one degree/day) until they are feathered out and ready to go outside.

Rule of Thumb Temperature Chart

1st week 90 - 84 F
2nd week 83 - 77 F
3rd week 76 - 70 F
4th week 69 - 63 F
5th week 62 - 56 F
6th week 55 F

(At six weeks old, they should be fully feathered and ready to move outside unless it's extremely cold where you live.)

NOTE: The same as with chicks, be sure to watch your ducklings to be sure they are comfortable. If they are huddled under the lamp, they are cold, if they are panting or at the far side of their brooder area, then they are too warm.

~Position your heat lamp at one end so the ducklings can choose where in the brooder they are most comfortable~
The Brinsea EcoGlow also works great for ducklings. They can go underneath when they get cold and then pop back out to play and eat. It is adjustable so you can raise the height as the ducklings grow.

 ~Use the coupon code FRESH to get 10% off any purchase from Brinsea~



WATER

Ducks need to keep the membranes in their nostrils moist at all times, so as they grow they will need deeper water bowls so they can submerge their entire bill. A traditional mason jar chicken waterer won't work well for ducklings. The design is too unstable and tips over too easily when you have rambunctious, clumsy ducklings nearby. Instead I use shallow flat bottom bowls or dishes and switch them out for larger ones as the ducklings grow. 

I put their water dish at the drain end of the bathtub, so all the water they splash out just goes right down the drain.  Ducklings can drown or get chilled if they sit in the water, so be sure to add some marbles or small stones to the water dish for the first few days.

~Ducklings can drown, so be sure to put stones or marbles in their water~
Room temperature water should always be available to them (sugar water at a ratio of 1/3 cup of sugar per gallon of water can be given for the first few days ). At one week old, a duckling will drink about half a gallon of water a week. By the time they are 7 weeks old, they will need almost a half gallon of water a DAY. Ducklings drink more than three times as much water as chicks, so be sure and check several times a day that they have clean fresh water.  I add a splash of apple cider vinegar to the ducklings water after the first couple of days as a health booster.

~Clumps of grass give the ducklings something do try eating and the dirt doubles as grit to help them digest their food. If they are eating anything other than chick feed, they need the grit~

FEED
Photo: My little ones will grow up healthy on their special feed mix.  The oats help prevent angel wing, ducklings need niacin (in the brewer's yeast) to grow strong bones, and the probiotic powder makes their poop SO much tidier so your brooder stays neater.

Ducklings should only be fed UN-MEDICATED feed. They eat more feed per ounce of body weight than chicks, aren't as susceptible to coccidiosis anyway and can easily over-medicate themselves, so only UN-medicated feed should be fed.


You can feed ducklings regular chick starter feed but since they require more niacin than chicks do, to help with bone growth especially in their legs, you will need to add brewers yeast to the feed (at a ratio of 5% or roughly 1/2 lb (3 cups) brewers yeast per 10 pounds of feed). I use Thomas Labs Brewer's Yeast & Garlic Powder and just sprinkle a bit over the top of their feed a few times a day. This mix gives them the niacin they need plus diatomaceous earth and garlic which both have benefits to growing ducklings.

The ducklings should start on chick feed (20% protein) for the first 2 weeks, then can switch to a waterfowl starter or starter/grower (15-16% protein) until they are 18 weeks old or so and then switch right over to a regular (16% protein) layer feed - or waterfowl feed if you can find it in your area.


~I add Thomas Labs Brewer's Yeast & Garlic Powder to my ducklings' feed for strong bones~
You can also add raw uncooked oats to their feed working up to about a 25% oat/75% feed ratio.  This can help avoid a condition called 'Angel Wing' which is caused by too much protein in a growing duckling's diet.  [Read more about Angel Wing HERE.]

Treats such as lettuce, grass, herbs, weeds, and dandelion greens are all excellent sources of nutrients but ducklings will only eat greens if they are fresh. Wilted and trampled greens will be ignored. I find that a handful of greens put into a small dish of water becomes a great way to amuse the ducklings and they gobble the greens up. You can also toss some peas into a tub of water. Anything green will be a huge hit with ducklings (and ducks!)

Photo: The ducklings love anything green floating in water, but they especially love chickweed soup!

~Ducklings love 'grass soup', just be sure you cut the blades of grass short so they don't get impacted crops~
Ducklings in general are very hardy but on occasion you may have one with problems.  Read HERE on how to treat 'stargazing' or head tilting, a potentially fatal problem that can be caused by a thiamine deficiency.  Mandie from Louise's Country Closet combined vitamin treatment with massage to successfully 'cure' her duckling.

Warm oatmeal and scrambled eggs are also a favorite treat, as is cracked corn. Coarse sand or chick-sized grit needs to be available to the ducklings at all times to help them grind their food.

~offering chopped herbs and edible flowers help ducks get a well-balanced diet~
I have found ducklings to be more picky about treats than chicks, but anything green, worms, cooked spaghetti, watermelon, corn and halved grapes all seem to be favorites.  I slowly introduce them to new foods, a little at a time, being sure that the starter feed makes up the majority of their diet.  I chop up all kinds of herbs and edible flowers for my ducklings as well. Herbs and flowers are incredibly nutritious and if the ducklings develop a 'taste' for them early on, they are more likely to continue to eat them as they grow and get older.



SWIMMING PRIVILEGES

Ducklings can swim at about a week old, but they haven't yet developed the oil on their feathers, so until they are about a month old, swims should be short and supervised or the ducklings can actually get waterlogged and drown. Drowning is the number one cause of fatalities in backyard ducklings.   I let my ducklings swim around in a rubber dish tub for a few minutes at a time and then dry them off carefully with a towel before returning them to the brooder.

~Swims need to be short and supervised until the ducklings are about 5 weeks old~
By the time they are a few weeks, old, ducklings can have access to a cake pan in their brooder for water and will begin to take short bath in it and  by 5-6 weeks,  they will be able to swim on their own.

~Your ducklings will love exploring outside on nice warm, sunny days~
TIME OUTDOORS

By the time the ducklings are 3-5 weeks old, weather dependent, they can be outside for short periods of time on nice sunny days with adequate protection from predators, the sun and rain.  Proper precautions should be taken at all times the ducklings are outdoors as they are clumsy and not able to move very quickly, so they are easy prey for a variety of predators.



By 7-9 weeks, the ducklings should be fully feathered and able to be outdoors permanently as long as the temperatures don't drop below 50 degrees at night.  Straw makes a nice choice for bedding.  Ducks don't perch on roosts like chicks, they just settle on the floor in the straw.

If you are introducing the ducklings into a run where there are chickens or other ducks, you should keep them in a small pen inside the run for a week or two so the two groups can get used to each other, just as you would do with pullets.

~These little ones still need a heat lamp at night until they are fully feathered~                                    
Ducks, once they are fully feathered, can withstand much cooler temperatures than chickens and actually prefer to sleep outside in the elements year round in most locations. My ducks have a predator-proof small run attached to their house so they can access it at night. They like to sleep under the stars.

~Read HERE to find out how an old wooden doghouse can be easily converted to a duck house~

Great sources for more information on raising ducks include:
www.metzerfarms.com
www.liveducks.com


~Find us on Facebook at Fresh Eggs Daily and Ducks Too~

26 comments:

  1. We plan on keeping our duck (due to hatch in 9 days) in a "baby brooder" that we made for the chicks last spring. Can a gravity waterer and slotted feed dish work for ducklings? Our little ducks will be spending a lot of time INSIDE as it'll be until the end of April before it's above 50 at night! Ha! Ha!

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    1. I find that regular shallow dishes work better than the chick feeders and waterers. I feel like duckings have trouble eating out of the chick feeder with the round holes in it - plus ducks get so much water in the feed, that it all clumps up inside the and you end up wasting alot.

      As for water, ducklings really, really like to play in it so a pie plate with some small stones in it works well. But try it and see what you think.

      They will really like swimming in your bathtub, but be sure to watch them and always dry them off well after swimming the first few weeks so they don't get chilled.

      Please post pics on facebook once they hatch !

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    2. Thanks, Lisa! I'll use the bottoms of the feeders because they slip off and make shallow "dishes". I'm sure the kids would LOVE to watch the ducklings swim in the bathtub! LOL (The youngest will probably want to jump in WITH them! LOL) I'm also sure that we'll need to get a bigger brooder for them as they get bigger so quickly.

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    3. The bottom of the feeders work well. Ducklings do get big fast but they can also go outside at least during they day alot sooner than chicks. They feather out faster and can take lower temps.

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  2. I just love the horse trailer idea! I received 17 ducklings and put them all in our bathtub. In a short time I had given quite a few away and eventually got down to 7, which was all I wanted in the first place. They had a pie plate for water and I changed it more than a few times each day. Feeder was a chicken feeder with the top off. Heat lamp - yes. I cleaned the tub really well twice a day. Once they got to be a week or so old, I would fill the tub twice a day to let them swim (supervised). I have to say there there is almost nothing on this planet cuter than watching baby ducks playing in water! Also, their poop is much wetter than chick poop. People say that ducks are messy. They are actually very clean! It is their poop that is messy. Be prepared to clean it up...a lot! I LOVED my ducks and miss them! Enjoy!

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    1. I would have to agree with you that watching ducklings play in water is just the cutest thing. I hope you have more ducks someday. I love our ducks too.

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  3. Oh man....excellent info....now I really really want ducks!!!

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  4. Everyone should raise ducks ! They really are so much fun.

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  5. I really, really, really want ducks now too!

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  6. Thank you for the info. We have two ducklings that are about 4 weeks old and I was worryed about them because the set alot and they walk funny but I guess that is normal for a duckling. They are about 4 times bigger then the chicks that I got at the same time. Wow , they grow fast and they still get water logged if I let them swim in a tub. They start to sink after just a few minutes. Thanks again for the info.

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  7. very good read...i asked at the feed store if ducks ate the same...i was told yes...i wouldnt have prepared correctly had a i not read this to know they cant drink out of the waterer and to use unmedicated feed...thanks...

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    1. Oh good! I'm glad you read my article then. Enjoy your ducklings....and be sure to visit Ducks Too on Facebook.

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  8. OMG! I was just talking about wanting to get ducks and I need to read up on their care. And here is perfect info on your site! Thank You so much !!!!

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    1. Oh good! Ducks are great and ducklings are the cutest! Come check out our facebook page Ducks Too as well for more information, photos, advice, etc.

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  9. I just left a comment on your Ducks Too facebook page about my ducklings. Now I have a question regarding this brewers yeast. Can I make a mixture myself? I am concerned about genetically modified ingredients. I am waiting for a call from the company. I found some pure brewers yeast and was wondering if I might just be able to mix it with some garlic and have the same results. Any help you can give would be wonderful.

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    1. Hi. Not sure either garlic or brewers yeast are ever genetically modified but sure you can use regular brewers yeast like from a health food store and mix in some garlic powder. As long as you try to keep both to 5% of the feed - no idea the exact ratio in the mix between the BY and garlic, but maybe the company can tell you.

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    2. Thanks. I am assuming the niacin is found in brewer's yeast. I looked at the ingredients of our organic feed and it lists that niacin has been added. Though, the amounts are not listed.

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  10. Hey, I have another question for you. How much should my ducklings be fed per day? I feel it is all getting wasted. They fill their bills and drop it all in the water. I don't want to overfeed them.

    The other thing: I read just a minute ago that ducks should never eat garlic. This brewer's yeast thing is safe, yes? I would imagine you knwo what you are talking about. :)

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    1. They do waste a fair amount of food that way but that's just ducks. I leave them feed 24/7.

      Where did you read that ducks shouldn't eat garlic? There are quite a few who say chickens shouldn't either but although garlic is in the onion family and 'could' be toxic in large enough amounts, garlic contains WAY less of the toxin and the health benefits are amazing. I add the brewers yeast & garlic powder to their feed daily.

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  11. I have asked several questions on your ducks, too page.....not sure if i'm asking in the right place, so i'm checking here as i haven't gotten a response.....also, it seems like my questions just disappear! Is this the right place to ask a question?
    thanks

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    1. Hi I'm sorry we do try to answer all your questions, but between our Ducks Too and Fresh Eggs Daily Facebook pages I know we miss some.. You can always ask here on the blog because I get an email notification of each comment. Or you can email direct to: Fresheggsdaily@gmail.com

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  13. Hi Lisa, thank you so much for this wonderful blog! My chicks and ducklings will arrive in a few weeks and my family is very excited to get started. I plan to add brewer's yeast to the chick starter for the ducklings. Is it safe for the chickens to have this added niacin in their diets?

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    1. Sure, I give it to our chickens as well. It's super nutritious for them.

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  14. Last week we got 18 ducklings & we are brooding them in a large tote that is rapidly getting to small. Any suggestions on what to brood them in until they can go outside?

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  15. Lisa I have a utility trailer I put sides on. I used PVC pipe across the top to attach my heat lamp. put plastic on the bottom with straw. Works great!

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Thank you for your kind comments and joining along with Fresh Eggs Daily as we live our wonderful, natural country farm life.

Lisa of Fresh Eggs Daily
www.facebook.com/FreshEggsDaily